Afghanistan in the Annals of History


Abdul Hai Habibi


5000 years BC:

-The people of Aq Kupruk, Dehmorasi, Mandigak and Seistan make imprinted pottery.

-Agriculture is practiced in Baluchi territory and Mandigak of Kandahar.

2500 years BC:

-Aryans in Ariana Veja and the period of Arik language.

Around 200 years BC:

Migration of the Aryans to Aryana and the period of horse riding.



Circa 1500 years BC:

-The Vedic civilization period. Rigveda and Pakhat and other Aryan tribes and the naming of mountains and valleys in Afghanistan.

Circa 1200 BC:

-The Avesta civilization and the start of agricultural life in Bakhdi, Peshdadian and the first Dadgari.

Circa 1000 BC:

-The movement of Aryans to the southern valleys of Oxus river and the Hindu Kush, and the establishment of the city of high flags (Bakhdi).

Circa 600 BC:

-The Zoroastrian movement and the period of good speech and good behavior. The sixteen nations of the Aryan people.

-The deeds of Avestan braves.

522 to 421 BC:

-The movement of the Arakozi and Margian (Merv) people against the Hepthalites of western Aryana.

334 to 326 BC:

- Seven years of resistance of the Aryan people against Alexander’s invasion.

256 BC:

-The Greek general, Diodotus, establishes the Greko-Bactrian dynasty in Bactria.

250 BC:

-The spreading of Buddhism,m Greek and Arami scripts as far as Arakozia. The writing of Askoka’s inscription in Kandahar.

Circa 50 BC:

-Fall of the Greko-Bactrian empire with the rise of the Saka, Bahlava, Takhari  and Yuya Chia (Kushani) movements.


40-78 AD:

-The Gandofaris movement and the establishment of the Pahlava rule from Seistan to Punjab.

-The coming of Saint Thomas to the Pahlava court and the first impact of Christianity in southern Aryana.

- The Kujula Kara Kedfezis movement and the establishment of the great Kushani empire.

125-144  AD:

-Kanishka Kushanshah establishes the fourth state of his time from Bagram and Baghlan.

-Expansion of Greko-Buddhist arts and Buddhism from Syr Darya to the banks of the Arghandab river.

Circa 151 AD:

-Expansion of the great Kushani empire from Khorasan as far as the banks of the Ganges river and the establishment of a shared Kushani culture.

-The people of Aryana accept the Mahyana sect of Buddhism in the Kashmir  great council.

Circa 350 AD:

-The Kedarian movement in Gahdahara and the rise of the Hepthalites.

-The uprising of Hepthalites against Iranian Sasanids and their success over the Sassanids.

500 AD:

-The Hepthalite, Turaman from Zabul, conquers Aryana and northern India.

540 AD:

-Advance of Mahira Kola, son of Turaman, as far as Kashmir.

Circa 550 AD:

The citing of ancient Awgana (Afghan) in the Indian Bahrita Samhita book by Warhama Mahira.

600 AD:

-The period of remnants of Kushani and Yaftali tribal leaders.



Circa 650 AD, 30 LH (Lunar Hijra):

-The coming of Islamic conquerors to Aryana and the propagation of Islam.

-Resistance by Kabul Shah in Kabul, Ratbel in Zabul, Bazan in Fushanj, Parvez in Seistan, Mahu-e-Suri in Ghor and Merv and Qarun in Herat against the Arab armies.

Circa 700 AD, 82 LH:

-The movement of Ratbel in Seistan and Zabul and the annihilation of the Arab army.

718 AD, 100 LH:

-The birth of Abu Muslim, strongman of Khorasan in Merv and Ali bin Mujahid, the Kabuli jurisconsult.

-Indications of Dari and Pashto literature in Khorasan and Ghor.

741AD, 124 LH:

-Departure of Abu Muslim Khorasani and the establishment of freedom movement in Khorasan.

755 AD, 137 LH:

-Death of Abu Muslim on the orders of Mansur, the Abasid ruler, and the resurrection of the Zoroastrian,  Feroz Sindbad, at Ahrana of Herat.

Circa 770 AD, 154 LH:

-The writing of an old Pashto epic by Jahan Pahlavan Amir Krorr Ghori.

-Resurrection by the white-garmented in Merv under the leadership of Sa’id Julawa.

758 AD, 141 LH:

-Uprising by the Rawandian of Khorasan against Abu Muslim.

-Insurgence of Barazbanda with a white banner and Hazin bin Reqad in Seistan.

767 AD, 150 LH:

-Resurrection by Seis Herawi in Badghis with the help of Harish Seistani.

-Trade of goods by Russian merchants by way of Iran and southern Afghanistan with India and China.

776 AD, 160 LH:

-The uprising of Yusuf al-Barm in Murghab and Poshanj.

777 AD, 161 LH:

-Major insurgence by Hashim bin Hakim Muqna’ with the aid of white-garmented revolutionaries in Herat and Merv.

780 AD, 167 LH:

-The killing of Bashar bin Bard Takhari, the famous Arab poet.

Circa 786 AD, 170 LH:

-Establishment of an independent state in Ghor by Amir Banji Neharan, Amir of the Faithful.

Circa 794 AD, 178 LH:

-The rule of Fazl bin Yahya Barmaki Balkhi in Khorasan.

789-828 AD, 182-213 LH:

-The great resurrection by Amir Hamza bin Abdullah Seistani in Khorasan.

812 AD, 197 LH:

-Rise of the Zoroastrian, Saman Khuda Balkhi, the founder of the Samani kingdom. 



Circa 815 AD, 200 LH:

-The rise of Shaobian against the Arab nobility in Khorasan.

-The blending of Arab and Khorasani cultures and the founding of a special Islamic Khorasani culture.

-Hanzala Badghasi recites alternate Dari verses.

-The rise of Ayaran cult in Khorasan.

822 AD, 207 LH:

-Resurrection of Taher bin Husain Poshangi and the establishment of a sovereign Khorasan.

841 AD, 227 LH:

- The uprising of Afshin in northern Khorasan and his death.

Circa 847 AD, 233 LH:

-The uprising of Albayanjor and the establishment of northern Hindukush state extending as far as Balkh and Takhar.

866 AD, 252 LH:

-The uprising of Yaqub Lais Safari in Seistan and establishment of the Safari government in Afghanistan and Iran.

892 AD, 279 LH:

-The uprising of the Ferighounis of Jouzjan and establishment of Ferigouni state in Jouzjan and Balkh.

-The uprising of Loykan in Gardez and the establishment of a government there.

901 AD, 289 LH:

-The governorship of Sharan of Gharjistan.

962 AD, 351 LH:

-The uprising of Alaptageen and seizure of Ghazni.

975 AD,  365 LH:

-The Sahlan uprising in Andarab and establishment of an emirate.

976 AD, 366 LH:

-Uprising by Subuktageen and establishment of the Ghaznavid state.

Circa 980 AD, 370 LH:

-Uprising by Sheikh Hamid and establishment of the first Ludi state in Multan.

981 AD, 371 LH:

-The Khorasani poet, Ferdowsi, starts writing the royal epic Shahnama.

997 AD, 387 LH:

-Coronation of Sultan Mahmud to the throne of Ghazni and start of raids on India.

1040 AD, 432 LH:

-Uprising by the Saljoks in Khorasan and defeat of Sultan Masud in Dandanqan.

1048 AD, 440 LH:

-Death of the great scholar, Abu Raihan al-Biruni (Mohammad bin Ahmad), in Ghazni.

1150 AD, 545 LH:

-Departure of Sultan Alaudddin Jahansoz and the burning of Ghazni.

1178 AD, 574 LH:

-Sultan Ma’zuddin Mohammad Ghori conquers India.

1245 AD, 643 LH:

-Establishment of the Al-Kurt state in Herat under the leadership of Malik Shamsuddin Mohammad Muhain.

1250 AD, 648 LH:

-Uprising by Malik Shahenshah Afghan in Mastang, Miranshah and Bahram Shah in eastern Afghanistan and Malik Tajuddin Harmuz in Tere, north of Kandahar.

1255 AD, 653 LH:

-Uprising by Almar Afghan in Tere, Shua’ib Surani in Taginabad, Malik Sindan in Duki and Malik Pahlavan,  Ahmad Turi  and Rana Kanjar in the Zhobe valley.

1334 AD, 735 LH:

- Uprising by Taher Shah Mir Swati and establishment of kingdom in Kashmir.

1337 AD, 737 LH:

-Uprising by Khwaja Abdul Razaq Khorasani and establishment of the Sarbadarian in Khorasan.

1406 AD, 809 LH:

-Uprising  by Malik Saleh bin Isma’il in Ghor and engagement with the Shahrukh rulers.

1407 AD, 810 LH:

-Uprising by Sultan Bahram bin Kahjaman in Konar and establishment of a government extending to Kashmir.

1417 AD, 820 LH:

-Uprising by Sayfal Kandahari and engagement with the Shahrukh rulers.

Circa 1465 AD, 870 LH:

-Resurrection by the Yusufzai tribes by Madado Mado and Osman and engagement with Mirza Ulugbeg of Kabul. Migration to the valleys from Khyber to the Indus river and Swat and the establishment of an agricultural society.

1475 AD, 880 LH:

- Shaikh Mali bin Adam Yusufzai writes his book, Daftar, in Pashto, describing a social lifestyle for the people which was the essence of shared ownership of the land. This system was abolished in 1829 AD through the efforts of the British.

1504 AD, 910 LH:

-Zahiruddin Babar captures Kabul and establishes the Mughal empire.

1526 AD, 932 LH:

-Victory of Babur over Sultan Ibrahim Ludi in Panipat and the conquest of Delhi.

1539 AD, 946 LH:

-Uprising by Sher Shah Suri in India and the defeat of Homayun bin Babar.

1570 AD, 978 LH:

-Uprising by Bayazid Roshan and the initiation of war of independence against the Timurid forces of India. The writing of Khair-al-Bayan in Pashto, Dari, Arabic and Punjabi by Roshan (died 1580 AD).

1582 AD, 990 LH:

-Leadership of the independent seeking Afghan forces by Jalaluddin son of Roshan.

1591 AD, 1000 LH:

-Insurrection for independence by Sultan Mahmud Gadun at the foothills of Mahabarn.

1600 AD, 1009 LH:

-Uprising by Ahdad, grandson of Roshan, leading the Afghan independent forces.

1613 AD, 1021 LH:

-The birth of Khushal Khan Khattak bin Shahbaz Khan, poet and militant leader of the Afghan independent movement in Srai Akora of the Khatak tribe.

1625 AD, 1035 LH:

- Uprising by Abdul Qadir bin Ahdad Roshan and leadership of the Afghan independence movement.

-Insurrection by Bahajo Khan Yusufzai in Mardan.

1629 AD, 1039 LH:

-Uprising by Kamaluddin Afghan and Abdul Qadir Roshan in Yulumguzar of Tera against the Temurians of India.

1631 AD, 1041 LH:

-Insurrection by Sher Khan Tarin in Psin against the Iranian Safavi forces.

1649 AD, 1059 LH:

-Uprising by Daulat Khan Sadozai in Kandahar against Iranian Safavi forces.

1672 AD, 1083 LH:

-The great uprising by Khushal Khan, Aimal Khan and Darya Khan Afridi in Khyber and Tera.

1689 AD, 1100 LH:

-Death of the great Afghan poet and leader, Khushal Khan, at the age of 76 in Akora.

1690 AD, 1102 LH:

-Insurrection by Sher Khan Sadozai in Kozhak of Kandahar against the Safavi forces.

Circa 1704 AD, 1116 LH:

-Uprising by Rustam Khan bin Daulat Khan Sadozai in Kandahar and the annihilation of the Safavi forces.

1705  AD, 1117 LH:

-National uprising by Haji Mirwais Khan and the holding of his first loya jirgah (great council) in Kokaran and start of the freedom movement.

1707 AD, 1119 LH:

-The second loya jirgah held by Mirwais Khan in Manja, the announcement of independence and the taking over of Kandahar city.

1711 AD, 1123 LH:

-Engagement of Kandahari freedom seekers with the 25,000 strong forces of Khusrao Khan Gurji and their annihilation under the leadership of Mirwais Khan.

1715 AD, 1127  LH:

-Death of Mirwais Khan after eight years of national leadership in Kokaran of Kandahar.

1716 AD, 1129 LH:

-National uprising by the Abdalis of Herat and the establishment of a national government there.

1720 AD, 1123  LH:

-Resistance by the Herati people against the Safavi forces under the leadership of Zaman Khan Sadozai.

1722 AD, 1135 LH:

-Kandahari nationalists, under the leadership of  Shah Mahmud bin Mirwais Khan Hotaki, capture Asfahan after an eight month siege.

1728 AD, 1142 LH:

-Continuation of resistance by the Herati national movement against the Safavis under the leadership of Allahyar Khan and Zualfiqar Sadozai.

1747 AD, 1160 LH:

-Selection of Ahmad Shan bin Zaman Khan Sadozai Durrani as king at the Sher-e Surkh loya jirgah and the establishment of an independent Afghanistan.

1760 AD, 1174 LH:

-Victory of Ahmad Shah at Panipat and Delhi and the laying of foundation of the new city of Kandahar.

1772 AD, 1186 LH:

-Death of Ahmad Shah in Kandahar. At the time Afghanistan had expanded from Meshad to Delhi and from the Oxus river to the Arabian Sea.

1798 AD, 1213:

-Shah Zaman, son of Timur Shah, reaches Peshawar with a 100,000 strong army to take back India (12 October). The British engage in conspiracy to create civil war in Afghanistan. As a result Shah Zaman refrains from taking back India and returns to Kabul and Kandahar.

1826 AD, 1242 LH:

-As a result of civil warfare, fanned by the British, power shifts from the Sadozai family of Ahmad Shah Durrani to the family of Sardar Payenda Khan Barakzai. The sons of Payenda Khan, according to the treaty of 11 November 1826, divide the greater Afghanistan from Kashmir to Sind as far as Herat among themselves (National Archives, Kabul). Only Herat is left to Kamran Sadozai and his wazir, Yar Mohammad Khan Alekozai.

1828 AD, 1244 LH:

-The rise of Abdul Ghafur Akhund of Swat, a freedom seeking Afghan, and the start of a jihad against the Sikh and British forces.

1832 AD, 1348 LH:

- Deployment of Qajari forces, under the orders of Abas Mirza, the crown prince of Iran, to capture Herat under the command of Prince Mohammad Mirza. Resistance by the people of Herat and return of the failed Qajari forces to Meshad resulting in ending the siege of Herat.

1834 AD, 1250 LH:

-Shah Shuja, the deposed king of Afghanistan, signs the treaty of 12 March 1843 with Ranjit Sing and attacks Kandahar but faces resistance by the national Afghan forces. After the siege of Kandahar he flees to India (10 May 1834). Ranjit Sing captures Peshawar.

1835 AD, 1251 LH:

-Sardar Dost Mohammad Khan is recognized as the sovereign amir of Kabul and Kandahar.

1837 AD, 1253 LH:

-Arrival of Sir Alexander Burns, envoy of the British Indian government, to the court of Kabul for negotiations (stays in Kabul until April 1838).

-Arrival of first envoy of Tzarist Russia, Vitkoich, to the court of Kabul (December 1837 to June 1838).

-Arrival of the English Potinger, under the guise of a horse trader, to Kabul and Herat. He comes to conduct secret political moves.

1838 AD, 1254 LH:

-Mohammad Shah Qajar lays siege on Herat. The people of Herat proclaim a jihad and continue their struggle for 10 months. Finally on 26 August 1839 the Iranian king returns to Meshed unsuccessfully.

-The announcement of Amir Dost Mohammad Khan’s government and continuation of talks with the envoy of Tzarist Russia.

-Signing of a tripartite defense treaty of Lahore between the deposed Shah Shuja, the viceroy of India and Ranjit Sing, the ruler of Punjab, to restore Shah Shuja as the ruler of Afghanistan (26 June 1838 AD).

-Lord Auckland, the Viceroy of India, declares the first war against Afghanistan on 1 October 1838, resulting in the start of resistance by Afghans.

1839 AD, 1254  LH:

-Shah Shuja, the defamed and deposed king of Afghanistan, with the aid of the Indus Army under the command of Sir John Kien, lays siege on Kandahar by way of Bolan valley. Shah Shuja is proclaimed the king (20 April). But according to the treaty of Kandahar (7 May 1839) McNaughten, the British political governor is in overall power. On 17 August 1839 British forces take over Kabul. Amir Dost Mohammad Khan flees to Bukhara.

1841 AD, 1257 LH:

-The national resurrection by Afghans and jihad against the British intensifies all over Afghanistan under the leadership of Abdullah Khan Achekzai, Aminullah Khan Logari, Mir Masjidi Khan Kohistani and Wazir Akbar Khan.

-National militant Afghans kill the Englishman, Sir Alexander Burns, (2 November 1841). Later the British  political agent, McNaughten, is also killed by the Afghan mujahiddin (23 December 1841). In this national campaign, Abdullah Khan Achekzai and Mir Masjidi Khan Kohistani, are also become martyrs.

1842 AD, 1258 LH:

-The death of all the invading twenty six thousand British forces (January 1842) and the killing of the traitor, Shah Shuja, who had come to Afghanistan with the British forces (3 April 1842).

-Total victory by the people of Afghanistan against the British forces and disembarkation of the remaining English invaders from Afghanistan until 12 October 1842. End of the first national uprising of the first Afghan-Anglo war.

1849 AD, 1265 LH:

-Cessation of eastern regions of Afghanistan and take over of Peshawar by the British as a result of the weakness of Amir Dost Mohammad Khan and his brothers. Continuation of jihad by tribal Afghans against the English.

1850 AD, 1267 LH:

-Holding of the Swat loya jirgah (grand council) under the leadership of Akhund of Swat and election of Sayed Akbar Shah Stahana to the jihadi emirate against the British forces.

-National uprisings against the British by the Afradis from Kohat, Bangash and Bahadurkhel Khatak.

1851 AD, 1268 LH:

-Jihad by Mohmand tribal forces and the first Mechani battle of Peshawar.

1852 AD, 1269 LH:

-The second Mohmand uprising against the British and the second Mechani and Prang Ghar battles. The Ranizai jihad in Malakand. Second jihad of Bahadur Khel Khatak and the uprising by the Tseri people.

1853 AD, 1270 LH:

-Jihad of the Kohat pass and holy war of the Buri against the British. Continuation of jihad by the Mohmand and Pandyali people against the English invaders.

1856 AD, 1273 LH:

-Resumption of jihad by the Akakhel of Kohat against the British.

1858 AD, 1274  LH:

-National uprising by the Panjar and continuation of jihad in forested regions (April).

1859 AD, 1276 LH:

-National uprising and jihad against the British by the Koram people (20 December). National jihad by the people of Musaid and Khatak in Maidani. Uprising by the people of Waziristan against the invading forces of Sir Neil Chamberlin until 1860.

-Continuation of uprising by the people of Torghar and Tirah.

1863 AD, 1279 LH:

-Jihad by the Swabi and Surkawi against the British and the famous martyrdom of  Ambela pass under the leadership of Akhund of Swat.

-Uprising by 15,000 freedom fighters of Qatagar against the British.

1869 AD, 1286 LH:

-Jihad by the Kabulkhel Waziri against the British.

1870 AD, 1287 LH:

-The emergence of a new order of thought in Afghanistan and establishment of the first cabinet under the presidency of Nour Mohammad Shah Kandahari.

1872 AD, 1289 LH:

-Uprising by the people of northern Waziristan and the great battle of Kajori against the British.

1876 AD, 1293 LH:

-Uprising by Baluchi and Afghans of southern Pashtunkhwa and seizure of Quetta by the British. Discussion by Sayed Nour Mohammad Shah, the prime minister, in Peshawar with representatives of British India regarding the regions of eastern Afghanistan.

1878 AD, 1295 LH:

-Receipt of the Tzarist government ambassador, Stalitov, to Kabul and talks pertaining to a treaty between the two governments (11 August).

-Uprising by the Ranizai people against the British and the Malakand jihad.

-Issuance of an ultimatum by Lord Litin, the British Viceroy to Amir Sher Ali Khan and the start of the second resurrection (the second Afghan-Anglo war).

1879 AD, 1296 LH:

-The arrival of British forces to Kabul under the command of General Roberts (12 October) during the emirate of Yaqub Khan and signing of the infamous Gandumak treaty pertaining to the division of Afghanistan (6 May).

-National uprising by the people of Afghanistan against the British and the killing of Cunard, the British ambassador, at Balahisar (3 December).

-Start of a national jihad in Kabul under the leadership of Mohammad Khan Wardak, Mohammad Osman Safi, and Mullah Mashk Alam.

-Resistance by the people of Kuram, Tera and Tank agains the invading British forces.

1880 AD, 1297 LH:

-Uprising by the people of Kandahar against the British and the jihad of Maiwand under the leadership of Mohammad Ayub Khan (27 July).

-After signing an agreement with Griffin, the British political agent, Sardar Abdul Rahman Khan goes to Kabul as regent (July).

-Jihad by the people of Waziristan and Mohmand Mechani against the British.

1886 AD, 1304 LH:

-Uprising of the Ghilji people living between Ghazni and Qalat against oppression by the amir (king).

1887 AD, 1307 LH:

-Uprising by the people of Bunir and crusade against the British. Continuation of struggle by the people of Koram and initiation of the fourth jihad by the people of Koram.

1889 AD, 1307 LH:

-Large scale uprising by the Hazara people against the oppression of the amir.

1891 AD, 1309 LH:

-Uprising by the people of Nuristan and continuous battles with commander Ghulam Haider Khan Charkhi resulting in the conversion of Nuristani people to Islam and the change of name of the place from Kafiristan to Nuristan (lasting up to 1895).

1896 AD, 1314 LH:

-Uprising by Mullah Pawinda in Waziristan and jihad against the British.

1903 AD, 1321 LH:

-The founding of the Habibia high school and start of modern education.

1905 AD, 1323 LH:

-Establishment of the Seraj-al-Akhbar association and the publication of the first issue of the paper under the direction of Mawlawi Abdul Rauf Kandahari.

1907 AD, 1325 LH:

-Uprising by the Afridi tribal people of Khyber under the leadership of Multan Zakhakhel.

1909 AD, 1327 LH:

-Formation of the Akhwan (brotherhood) political party to initiate a constitutional monarchy in Afghanistan  and execution of its leaders under. the orders of the Amir.

1911 AD, 1329 LH:

-Renewal of publication of Seraj-al-Akhbar under the direction of Mahmud Tarzi and proliferation of modern literature and thought in Afghanistan.

1912 AD, 1331 LH:

-Establishment of the Education Board and publication of its regulations in Kabul.

1913 AD, 1332 LH:

-Inauguration of the first teacher education institute in Kabul and founding of the first transportation company.

1914 AD, 1334 LH:

-Uprising by Mullah Ahmad Jan Sanduka and announcement of jihad against the British in Chakdara and Malakand.

1915 AD, 1335 LH:

-Encouragement to attain independence of Afghanistan in the editorial of Seraj-al-Akhbar under the title, Come Unto the Asylum, which was censored.

-Formation of the Loya Jirgah and the ratification of neutrality by Afghanistan (April).

-Formation of the freedom seekers of India in Afghanistan under the presidentship of Raja Muhandar Partab at the Babur gardens.

-Uprising by Haji Fazl Wahed Tarnakzai in the Mohmand tribal area and attack on Shabqadr.

-Uprising by Sarmast Afridi in Tirah and proclamation of jihad against the British.

1918-1919 AD, 1338 LH:

-Resurrections against the British at Mugulkot, Tank, Apozai, Tuchi, Kesighar, Kawar, Manjigari, Zazhi, Darabin, Taraki and Qala-e Dho.

1919 AD, 1297 SH:

-Assassination of Amir Habibullah Khan at Kalagosh of Laghman, 20 February 1919.

-Coronation of His Majesty Amanullah Khan to the throne of Kabul, 28 February 1919.

-The announcement of Afghanistan’s independence in Kabul by Amanullah Khan, 29 February 1919.

-Inauguration of parliament and formation of the second Afghan cabinet.

-The sending of Amanullah Khan’s letter to Lenin, the founder of the Soviet Union, regarding the independence movement of Afghanistan and friendship with the Soviet Union, 7 April 1919. Moreover Mahmud Tarzi, the foreign minister, sends a similar letter to Chechrin, commissioner for foreign affairs, of Soviet Union. Lenin’s reply indicating his pleasure arrives to Kabul on 22 May.

-The announcement of the struggle for independence and start of the third Afghan-Anglo war (3 May) by the frontier tribes of Nangarhar, Paktia and Kandahar.

-The conquest of Tal by mujaheddin and Afghan forces (28 May).

-Cessation of the war of independence 2 June.

-Formation of the interim free government of India by independence seeking Indian refugees headed by Raja Mehandra Partab at Bagh-e Bala of Kabul.

-Reception of the first special envoy of Soviet Union, Zakharvich Soritz, to Kabul (September).

-Peace treaty and recognition of Afghanistan’s independence signed on 8 August in Rawalpindi in five articles on 18 August. The treaty was ratified with the signature of His Majesty Amanullah Khan.

1923  AD, 1301 SH:

-Holding of the first loya jirgah after Afghanistan’s independence in Jalalabad participated by 872 persons representing the people of Afghanistan. The council was attended by Amanullah Khan and Afghanistan’s first constitution was ratified.

1924 AD, 1303 SH:

-Reactionary rebellion by bigots south of Kabul, instigated by the British, is culled in February.

-The second loya jirgah is inaugurated with Amanullah Khan’s speech. The jirgah approves 19 articles (September).

1927 AD, 1306 SH:

-Publication of the national weekly, Anis, under the direction of Ghulam Mohauddin Anis in Kabul.

-Publication of the national literary weekly, Nasim-e Sahar, under the direction of Ahmad Rateb in Kabul.

-Amanullah Khan’s trip to European and Asian countries from 27 December to 28 July.

1928 AD, 1307 SH:

-After his six and a half month trip Amanullah Khan arrives to Kandahar by way of Iran and announces his extensive progressive program which includes: 1. Agreement to extend a railway line from the north to south of the country with two French firms. 2. Publication of the manifesto of the Independence party. 3. Inauguration of the Black, Red and Green clubs (the color of Afghan flag). 4. Inauguration of the third loya jirgah in Paghman attended by 1000 representative of the people. 5. Replacement of the state parliament with a national parliament and publication of election law. 6. Establishment of general inspection office. 7. Three year military conscription. 8. Abolishment of state titles and ranks. 9. Designation of general punishment and abolishment of cash fines. 10. Establishment of trading courts. 11. Designating the black, red and green colors of the national flag replacing the former black only flag with the emblem of a rising sun behind a mountain and the words God is Great.

-In a large meeting at the Storie palace Amanullah Khan announces the abolishment of women’s veil and sends female students to Turkey .

-Expansion of the reactionary rebellion in the east and the reactionary movement by Bacha-e Saqao north of Kabul under the machination of the British.   

1929 AD, 1307 SH:

-Downfall of the Amani government in light of attacks by reactionary forces triggered by the British. Resignation of Amanullah Khan and his departure to Kandahar.

-The downfall of Kabul into the hands of the reactionary forces of Bacha-e Saqao and his declaration as king under the title of servant of the religion of the Prophet (?), 18 January 1929.

1929 AD, 1308 SH:

-Departure of Amanullah from Afghanistan at the Spinboldak border.

-Uprising by the people of Paktia and defeat of the Bacha-e Saqao forces and capture of Kabul. The announcement of the kingship by Mohammad Nader Khan (17 October). Arrival of a message from Qara Khan, deputy minister of foreign affairs of the Soviet Union, recognizing the new state of Afghanistan (October).

1930 AD, 1309 SH:

-The Afridi uprising, the Kajori jihad and attack on the city of Peshawar (13 August).

-Inauguration of the fourth loya jirgah and ratification of the 1930 constitution and the parliamentary election bill.

-Uprising by the Utman Khel at Prang Ghar and the fifth jihad against the British. The killing of the Malakand political agent.

1931 AD, 1310 SH:

-Inauguration of the literary society of Kabul.

1932 AD, 1311 SH:

-Execution of Ghulam Nabi Khan Charkhi and the Darikhel uprising in Pakthia.

-1933  AD, 1312 SH:

-Mohammad Azim Munshizadah, a freedom seeking young Afghan, kills three workers at the British embassy in protest.

-Abdul Khaleq, a young Hazara, kills Mohammad Nader Shah at the Delkusha palace (8 November).

1937 AD, 1316 SH:

-Uprising by the Zarghun Shahr and Katawaz people against the government’s oppression.

1939 AD, 1318 SH:

-Uprising by the Zamindawar people and Afzal Khan Alizai against the government’s oppression.

1941 AD, 1321 SH:

-Inauguration of the fifth loya jirgah and the approval of Afghanistan’s neutrality during the Second World War (28 July).

1945 AD, 1324 SH:

-Uprising by the Safi people of Konar against the government’s oppression.

1946 AD, 1325 SH:

-Inauguration of Kabul University including the colleges of medicine, law and literature.

-Start of the Wesh Zalmyan (enlightened youth) movement in Kandahar.

1947 AD, 1326 SH:

-Publication of the first book propagating the ideal of Afghan youth under the title of Wesh Zalmyan in Kabul, resulting in the intellectual instigation of young Afghans.

1948 AD, 1327 SH:

-Formation of the political party of Wesh Zalmyan in Kabul.

1950 AD, 1329 SH:

-Ratification and publication of the Wesh Zalmyan manifesto and selection of its Kabul committee.

1951 AD, 1330 SH:

-Publication of Neda-e Khalq, the three days per week newspaper by Dr. Mahmudi in Kabul in Dari language.

-Publication of the weekly Wulus in Pashto language by Gul Pacha Ulfat in Kabul.

-Publication of the weekly Watan, the organ of the Watan Party by Mir Ghulam Mohammad Ghubar and Mir Sediq Farhang.

-Publication of the weekly Angar, the organ of Wesh Zalmyan party, in Kabul under the direction of Faiz Mohammad Angar in Pashto and Dari.